Saturday, December 10, 2011

Window Maintenance


  1. To access defragmenter open “My Computer” and right click on the drive to be defragmented
  2. Select “properties”
  3. Then select “Tools”
  4. Then select “Defragment Now”
  5. Click “analyze” button. This will analyze the amount of fragmentation.
  6. A report indicating if defragmenter needs to be run will be displayed
  7. Defragmenter can still be run, although the report says it is not required
  8. When complete a report can be viewed by selecting “View Report”
  9. After viewing the report the utility can be closed. As part of a regular routine, defragmenter should be run on all drives once a fortnight.
  10. Disk Defragmenter 

Disk Clean Up

  1. To access Disk Cleanup open “My Computer” and right click the drive to be cleaned then select “Properties”
  2. Next select “Disk Cleanup”
  3. Tick the items to be removed
  4. Select “Yes” to confirm deletion of the files
  5. The files will then be removed from the hard drive
  6. The space is now returned to the hard drive. Click “OK” to finish


  1. To access your favourites open “Internet Explorer”
  2. When Internet Explorer opens select “Favourites”Favorites
  3. When selected, a drop down list of all favourites will be displayed
  4. Select “Organise Favourites”
  5. Firstly we will delete an item that is no longer required
  6. Select the item, then click “delete”
  7. Select “Yes” to confirm deletion
  8. The item will been sent to the recycle bin.
  9. Select “Create Folder” to start organising favourites
  10. Select “Rename” and give the new folder a name i.e. “computers”
  11. There are two ways to move items in to folders.
  12. Select an item then click “Move to Folder”Favorites
  13. Now select the folder and the item is moved into the folder.
  14. OR use drag and drop
  15. Left click the item and hold, then drag to the folder
  16. The black line indicates the position where the item will be placed
  17. When in the correct place release the mouse button, the item has now been moved to its new folder
  18. With folders created, and items moved, the favourites is now easier to navigate.
  19. Select a folder to view its contents

Files and Folders

  1. In this scenario we have a folder called “storage” containing different files – double click on the folder “storage”.
  2. Inside the folder three files can be seen
  3. Below is a graphical representation of how this file/folder structure is organiseFiles and Folders
  4. Once inside the folder the files can be viewed in different formats depending on your preference – Click on “View” and select “Thumbnails”
  5. Here the files are viewed as thumbnails – again click on “View”
  6. Next select “List”
  7. Here the files are viewed as a list format – click “View”
  8. Next select “Details”
  9. Here the files are viewed in the details format which gives a more descriptive view and properties of each file – Click on “View”
  10. Select “Arrange Icons by” and choose “Name”
  11. Here the files are arranged alphabetically by order of name. Click “View”
  12. Select “Arrange Icons by” and choose “Type”
  13. Here the files are arranged by type i.e. all Word files will be grouped together, all PowerPoint together etc – again click “View”
  14. Select “Arrange Icons by” and choose “Modified”
  15. Here the files are displayed in date and time order of when they last were edited.
  16. Next select “View” then “Arrange Icons by” and “Show in Groups”
  17. Now the files are displayed alphabetically, regardless of file type, this is particularly useful when large numbers of files are stored in a folder.
  18. Another way of viewing files and folders is through “Windows Explorer”. To locate select “Start”
  19. Select “All Programs”
  20. Select “Accessories” and next “Windows Explorer”
  21. From the left-hand pane the folder “storage” can be found.  Then double click
  22. Once open the files can be viewed in the right hand window
  23. Microsoft have also provided a convenient location for you to store your files, this is known as the “My Documents” folder – click on “Start”
  24. Select “My Documents”- Here a drop down view of the contents of the folder can be seen
  25. For a more detailed view – right click “My Documents” and select Open”
  26. The contents can now be viewed more clearly and in detail.
  27. Another useful folder that is provided is the “My Pictures” folder – click “Start” and select “My Pictures”
  28. Here your electronic photo album can be viewed
  29. Here the pictures can be viewed in the same way as normal files but with some extra features- click “View” and select “Filmstrip”, photos can be selected and be viewed in more detail in the centre of the screen
  30. Another added feature is the “Pictures Taken On” view, this allows photos to be organised by date & time from when the original photos were taken from a digital camera or photo camera
  31. The easiest way to view your photo album is by the slide show as this method allows you to view pictures full screen without any user intervention – In the left hand pane click “View as a slide show”
  32. And the slide show will begin….
  33. ….and will carry on automatically
  34. The slide show can then be stopped by placing the mouse cursor over the screen and clicking on the cross in the top right hand corner

Recycle Bin

  1. How to recover a file from the recycle bin e.g. The “my music folder” will be deleted and then recovered
  2. Right click the “my music” folder and select “delete”
  3. Select yes to confirm deletion
  4. The file has now been sent to the recycle bin. To recover this file, Right click the recycle bin and select “open”.
  5. Highlight (single left click) the file to be recovered
  6. Note the task box on the left changes from “restore all items” to “restore this item”. With the file highlighted select “restore this item”Recycle Bin
  7. When clicked the file is restored to its original location.
  8. With the file recovered, the recycle bin can be emptied to remove the unwanted files. Right click the recycle bin and select “empty recycle bin”
  9. Select yes to confirm deletion of the files
  10. The recycle bin is now empty; the bin should be emptied on a regular basis, once per week, as up to 10% of the hard disk space is allocated for storage of deleted files.
  11. A lot of valuable disk space can be saved by routinely emptying the recycle bin. The recycle bin should be emptied before running defragmenter so free space can be reused.
Scan Disk

  1. To access scandisk open “My Computer” and right click on the drive that you want scanned. Select “Properties”
  2. From the tools tab under “Error Checking” select “Check Now”
  3. Two options are available to check
    1. the file system
    2. or the diskScan Disk
  4. Click “Start” to begin Phase 1.
  5. After phase 1 “file system check” has completed click “OK” to finish,
  6. Then start the disk check by ticking  “Scan for and attempt to recover bad sectors.”
  7. Then click “Start”
  8. This is a two phase operation and may take sometime to complete
  9. When complete click “OK” to finish
  10. And “OK” to close Scandisk.
  11. Like Defragmenter, Scandisk should be run on a regular basis to ensure the file system and hard disk are maintained to their optimum.

Temporary Internet Files and Cookies

  1. To delete temporary internet files and cookies, right click “Internet Explorer” and select “Properties”
  2. Then in the Temporary Internet files section, select “Delete Files”Temporary Internet Files and Cookies
  3. Select “OK” to confirm deletion of the files
  4. Next select “Delete Cookies”
  5. For help on any item that shows on this page click the “?”, then click the item.
  6. Click “OK” to confirm deletion of these files
  7. For privacy purposes the history of websites visited can also be cleared by clicking “Clear History”
  8. Click “Yes” to confirm deletion of these files

Antivirus Software

  1. To start click the desktop icon
  2. On the opening screen select “Check for Updates”, always make certain the latest update has been installed.
  3. Scanner will connect to the internet and download available updates
  4. Updates may include new virus updates and new components
  5. Select “Update” to download and install the new files
  6. When the download completes all files will be automatically updated
  7. Select “OK” to finish the updates
  8. Now everything is up to date a scan can be run. Select “Scan Computer” to begin
  9. The scan may take some time to complete
  10. A summary of the scan is displayed on completion, in this case no viruses were found Antivirus Software
  11. Keeping the virus scanner updated can be automated so there is less chance of updates being missed or forgotten.
  12. This  can be scheduled at start-up or a set time of day when the computer will be connected to the internet. This requires schedule to be set up, select “Scheduler”.
  13. Highlight “Update Plan” then select “Edit Schedule”
  14. Select the most suitable time from the drop down menu
  15. Also tick “If Internet connection is not available, check when it goes online”
  16. With both options selected, if the computer is not on at the scheduled time it will update when the internet becomes available. Select “OK” to set the new schedule.
  17. All files that are to be loaded onto the computer from other sources e.g. floppy discs, downloaded documents and attachments should always be scanned before you open them.
  18. Even if these files are received from family and friends, better safe than sorry.
  19. People may not realise they have a virus on their computer.
  20. A file is about to be opened off a floppy disc. Before the file is opened, right click on the drive then select “Scan with ….”
  21. The disc will be scanned ensuring no viruses are transferred to the system.
  22. If the scan finds no infected files the disc can be safely opened. Click “Close to finish”
  23. Always remember better safe than sorry.

Compression and Encryption

Right click on any of your files within an NTFS volume and select properties. Select the Advanced button
Compression and EncryptionThis is the window seen when encrypting or compressing a file. The corresponding window for a folder is very similar.
You cannot Encrypt and Compress a file or folder
Files can also be compressed or encrypted from a command line
These commands can also be used to discover the attributes of objects, or to change the attribute of a particular file type.

Switches for the Cipher command

/e encrypts
/d decrypts
/f forces action
/s:x affects directory x
/s: affects current directory
/q gives no reports
/i ignores error and continues
/file1 file2 file3  (note spaces between multiple files)
/*.txt *.doc *.htm  (note use of wildcard)

Switches for Compact command

/c compresses
/u decompresses
/s:x affects directory x
/s: affects current directory
/q gives no reports
/i ignores error and continues
/file1 file2 file3  (note spaces between multiple files)
/*.txt (note use of wildcard)
/f forces action
/a displays hidden or system files


NTFS Folder Permissions

Read – Allows a user to see the files and subfolders in a folder, and to view folder properties.
Write – Allows a user to create new files and folders within the folder, change folder attributes and view folder properties.
List Folder Contents – Allows a user to view the contents of the folder.
Read and Execute – Allows a user to read the contents of a folder and Traverse Folders.
Modify – Allows a user to delete and modify the contents of a folder, and enables Read/Execute and Write permissions.
Full Control – Allows a user to modify permissions and to take ownership.

NTFS SecurityNTFS File Permissions

Read – Allows a user to read a file and view its properties.
Write – Allows a user to overwrite a file, change attributes, and view ownership and permissions.
Read and Execute – Allows a user the right to run applications and read a file.
Modify – Allows a user to modify and delete a file and also allows Read/Execute and Write Permissions.
Full Control – Gives the user full-control over a file, allowing the user to modify permissions and take ownership.

Permission Inheritance

By default all files and folders inherit permissions from their parent. If Read Permission is allowed to the parent folder, all child files and folders below it will also be given Read Permission. This is known as Permission Inheritance.
Windows also allows you to block Permission Inheritance, and assign permissions to files and folders individually.

Taking Ownership

Every file and folder created has an owner. This owner is called the creator owner. The owner of an object can deny access to other users including the Administrator. Fortunately the administrator can take ownership of any file or folder on the computer and regain access.
To configure folder permissions right-click on the relevant folder.
Select Properties.
Select Security.
The Access Control List (ACL) for the folder is displayed. Click on Add to add a new user to the list.
Type in the name of the user, e.g. Pauline Potter.
Click on OK to continue.
The user Pauline Potter has been added to the ACL and has been given the Read & Execute and List Folder Contents permissions.
As well as securing folders, NTFS can also secure individual files. Right-click on the file to configure file  permissions.
Select Properties.
Select the Security Tab.
Notice that this file has inherited all the permissions of its parent. Highlight the user Pauline Potter.
…and select the Deny Full Control Permission. N.B. Similar to share permissions, the Deny permission will always take precedence.
Pauline Potter has now been denied access to the file. Click on Advanced to view the advanced options for this file.
The Permissions tab allows you to fine-tune permissions. To view the special permissions available for this file click on Add.
…and specify a user.
Click on OK.
A list of permissions are shown which allows an administrator to fine-tune access to the file or folder.
The owner tab displays the owner of the file. Users with the right to take ownership can take control of the file from here.
The Effective Permissions page can be used to determine what level of access a user or group will have to this file.
For example, the user Pauline Potter has no access to the file. Even though she has read and execute permission to the parent folder.
The user will receive an error message when attempting to open the file.

Copying and Moving Files on the same Partition.

The follow rules should be remembered when moving or copying files and folders.  A new file or folder automatically inherits permissions from its parent.   When moving a file on the same NTFS partition, the file will keep its original permissions, no matter where it is placed.  When copying a file on the same NTFS partition, a new version of the file is made, so it will inherit the permissions of its parent.

Moving files between folders within a NTFS partition

When moving a file from one folder to another, the file keeps its original permissions. This is because no new resource is made; it is merely moved.

Copying Files Between Folders

When copying a file from one folder to another, the file inherits the permissions of its parent. This is because you are making a new version of the file.

Copying and Moving Files and Folders to another partition.

When copying or moving files and folders to another NTFS partition, a new resource is created, therefore the file/folder will inherit permissions from its parent.
When copying or moving files and folder to a non-NTFS partition, the file/folder will lose all of its attributes.


Disk Quotas are only available on NTFS partitions.
To create a quota, right-click on the relevant drive.
Select Properties.
Select the Quota Tab.
Select the Enable Quota management checkbox to enable quotas for this drive.
Select the Deny Disk space to users exceeding quota limit checkbox to prevent users from exceeding their quota limits.
Select the Limit Disk space to option to set the disk quota limits.
Select the Limit Disk space to option to set the disk quota limits.
Select the Limit and Warning levels.
It is a good idea to log when a user exceeds his quota limit or reaches his warning level.
This quota will apply to all users of the system except the Administrator. Select Quota Entries to configure individual quota limits.
Select Quota.
Select New Quota Entry.
Specify the user you want to set the quota limit for.
Click OK
Select the quota limits you want to apply to the user.
Click OK.
The quota limits are displayed in the quota entries box. N.B. The administrator has no quota limit.
Click on Apply to start the quota.
Click on OK to accept the warning.
The disk quota is now active.